South-South and Triangular Cooperation on Sustaining Peace and Inclusive Development
Rising violent conflict and man-made humanitarian crises are challenges mainly affecting Global South countries. According to the recent report “Pathways to Peace” (World Bank and UN report), conflict and violence are on the rise. The report found that by 2030 over half of the world’s population will be living in countries affected by high levels of violence -both, interstate and intrastate violence-, and this figure is expected to rise to 80 percent by 2035 unless global action is taken. For example, according to the 2018 Global Peace Index, peace has deteriorated in 92 countries, revealing a world in which tensions, conflicts and crisis have remained unresolved over the past decade, causing a gradual, sustained declined in global levels of peacefulness and inclusive development. At the same time, many countries in the Global South are those more severely affected by a massive influx of refugees, migrants and internally displaced people looking for a safe and better life away from conflicts and poverty. The complexity of this scenario is further exacerbated by climate change, the pressures related to the management of natural resources and business practices that are not sensitive to conflict dynamics and social justice, all factors directly affecting peace and security. In this regard, there is a worldwide call to focus on effective work on conflict prevention and the promotion of more effective strategies focusing on the peace-security-climate change-inclusive development nexus.
The endorsement of the SDG Agenda sparked a renewed global momentum to establish cross- sectoral, cross-regional and thematic partnerships towards their achievement. The United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation (UNOSSC) established a dedicated programme to respond to the demand from countries, UN agencies, inter-governmental organizations and other partners to promote more and better South-South Cooperation towards sustaining peace and inclusive development. UNOSSC understands that the inclusion of the SDG 16 (“Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels”) was an important step. However, and considering the perspectives of several countries in the Global South, we know that sustainable peace will only be achieved if all SDGs are met: it is possible to find linkages for the promotion of durable peace across all SDGs targets.
Global South countries and regional and cross-regional organizations in coordination with UN agencies, think-tanks and civil society organizations are actively pursuing and implementing innovative initiatives to promote conflict prevention and peacemaking with attention to the root causes of conflict, while responding to crisis with a long-term and transformative approach. Nevertheless, these options and solutions are not known and/or shared widely and systematically, in particular, across regions. Southern actors are at the front-line of conflict; promoting creative and viable alternatives for sustaining peace. Despite all this, South-South Cooperation policy frameworks, discourse and practice has not included peace, development and security at its core.
In this context, it is essential that Global South partners can support each other and promote contextually relevant and inclusive alternatives to guarantee conflict prevention and promote durable peace. The Peace Solution Forum at the 2018 Expo, will be an opportunity to showcase Southern-led effective experiences in conflict prevention, peacemaking and conflict transformation, reflect on lessons learnt and provide concrete policy recommendations to create contexts of more peace, dignity and justice for all. It will be a good chance to put forward innovative ideas for South-South Cooperation on peace, development and human security in preparation to the “Second High-Level United Nations Conference on South-South Cooperation” (BAPA+40, Buenos Aires, March 2019).
- To share concrete examples of South-South leadership for peace and inclusive development to prevent the recurrence of conflict
- To highlight specific lessons learnt and the role of Southern leadership in the promotion of durable peace
- To share policy recommendations on SSC on peace and development to be considered during BAPA + 40 negotiation process
A short policy-brief report including all key lessons and recommendations shared by panelists will be produced by the United Nations Office South-South Cooperation Peace and Development team.
The brief will be shared with BAPA+40 facilitators, partners UN agencies and member states as a mean to openly and transparently inform process to strengthen South-South cooperation frameworks, policies and programmes.
Mr. Jorge Chediek
Envoy of the Secretary-General on South-South Cooperation and Director, United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation (UNOSSC)
Since October 2015, Mr. Jorge Chediek has been the Director of the United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation, leading United Nations system-wide promotion and coordination of South-South cooperation for development. In March 2016, Mr. Chediek was appointed by the United Nations Secretary-General as his Envoy on South-South Cooperation.
Prior to this, Mr. Chediek served as the UN Resident Coordinator/United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Resident Representative in Brazil (2010-2015). In that capacity, he was also the Director of the International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth, UNDP’s global forum for policy dialogue and South-South learning on social development innovations. He served as Resident Coordinator/UNDP Resident Representative in Peru (2005-2010); United Nations Resident Coordinator/UNDP Resident Representative in Nicaragua (2001-2005); Deputy Resident Representative in Cuba (1999-2001); Deputy Resident Representative in Uruguay (1996-1999); Programme Management Officer, Regional Bureau for Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States in New York (1994-1996); and Programme Officer and then Assistant Resident Representative in Turkey (1990-1994).
Preceding his United Nations career, Mr. Chediek worked at the Department of Legislative Analysis of the Argentinean Congress and as an independent consultant assisting in the design of financial investment systems in Argentina. Born in 1960, he holds a Master of Science in Foreign Service (honours) from Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., and a Bachelor of Science (“Licenciado”) in Political Science from Catholic University in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Ms. Cecilia Milesi
Senior Adviser on South-South Cooperation on Peace and Development at the United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation (UNOSSC)
Cecilia is an Argentine sociologist with over 20 years of experience from working in the fields of conflict prevention and transformation, inclusive development, human rights and mobilisation for change.
Before her current position at the United Nations, she held leadership and advisory roles at renowned organisations around the world: she was Director of Planning and Performance at Conciliation Resources, Movement Building Coordinator at Amnesty International and expert advisor, senior analyst and researcher for Oxfam, CDA Collaborative Learning, BRICS Policy Center, Global South Unit for Mediation, Interamerican Development Bank, Kering Foundation, Open Democracy, Reality of Aid, SES Foundation, among others. Cecilia is the founder of a social organization promoting peace education and youth leadership in Argentina – Subir al Sur-. She has received several awards as outstanding social entrepreneur and works closely with social leaders and movements from Africa, Latin America and Asia.
She is a Sociologist (University of Buenos Aires) with Master studies in Violence, Conflict and Development (School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London and FLACSO, Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences). She has published extensively on South-South Cooperation, mediation, conflict transformation and participatory policy-making.
Ms. Angela Ospina
Director of the Presidential Agency of International Cooperation APC-Colombia
Ms. Angela Ospina is the Director of the Presidential Agency of International Cooperation APC-Colombia.
She has extensive experience in the public sector, with a strong performance as Presidential Advisor of Special Programs, where she made significant contributions in topics related with: democratic governance, strengthening of the strategy “Network of Social Managers”, social inclusion of people with disabilities; reinforcing citizens to exercise their rights, and improving student conditions in vulnerable areas of 160 municipalities in 29 departments.
She also served as Advisor to the Ministry of Interior and Justice, of the Colombian Rural Development Institute INCODER and chaired the Inter-Agency Committee to combat human trafficking for three years. Before taking office at the Presidential Agency of International Cooperation APC-Colombia, Mrs. Ospina served as Director of the Mariano Ospina Perez Foundation where she promoted the analysis of national issues to find development solution.
Mr. Rasyid Mahmuddin
Deputy Director for INGOs and South-South Cooperation under the Directorate General of Multilateral Cooperation in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia
Mr. Rasyid Mahmuddin currently serves as the Deputy Director for INGOs and South-South Cooperation under the Directorate General of Multilateral Cooperation in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia.
Prior to this he served as the Third Secretary/Second Secretary in the Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia in Cairo, Egypt and held several posts within the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Jakarta. Mahmuddin received his Bachelor of International Relations Studies from Gadjah Mada University in Indonesia and later completed a Master of Counter-Terrorism Studies at Monash University in Australia.
Mr. Ryutaro Murotani
Director / Deputy Head of Office for Global Issues and Development Partnership, Operations Strategy Department of JICA
Mr. Ryutaro Murotani currently serves as the Director / Deputy Head of Office for Global Issues and Development Partnership, Operations Strategy Department of JICA. Prior to this assignment, he served as Senior Representative / Deputy Head of JICA Rwanda Office for three years.
His previous assignments include Research Fellow at JICA Research Institute, First Secretary at the Embassy of Japan in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Middle East Officer at the Loan Aid Division of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. He holds the Master in Public Policy (MPP) from Harvard Kennedy School.
Mr. Patrice Chiwota
Senior Programme Officer in the Peacebuilding Support Office (PBSO, United Nations)
Mr. Patrice Chiwota has been the Senior Programme Officer in the Peacebuilding Support Office (PBSO, United Nations) since 2008, initially leading and guiding the operationalization and development of the multi-partner Secretary-General’s Peacebuilding Fund (PBF) before moving on, in 2018, to lead the Intergovernmental Peacebuilding Commission (PBC) support work for three countries on the agenda of the Commission, i.e. Guinea Bissau, Burundi and Liberia since beginning of 2018.
Prior to joining the PBSO, he served UNDP at the country, regional and international levels, in various capacities, including as Economist, Practice Manager in the Poverty and MDGs Practice Area of the UNDP Bureau for Development Policy, and as Manager of the Integrated Framework Trust Fund for Trade Capacity Building for Least Developed Countries. He holds an advanced degree in Economics.
Ms. Manuela Trindade Viana
Adjunct Professor in the Institute of International Relations (IRI) at the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC Rio)
Ms. Manuela Trindade Viana is an Adjunct Professor in the Institute of International Relations (IRI) at the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC Rio), where she also coordinates the Undergraduate Program in International Relations. She holds a PhD in International Politics from IRI PUC Rio, Brazil. She is also a Research Fellow in the Centre for Military Studies (CEMIS), Stellenbosch, South Africa, and a researcher in the Global South Unit for Mediation.
From 2013 until 2018, she was the managing editor of Pontes, a publication focused on trade and sustainable development, funded by the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD).
Mr. Igor Cvetkovski
Global Focal Point for Land, Property and Reparations with the Department of Operations and Emergencies of the International Organization for Migration (IOM, United Nations)
Mr. Igor Cvetkovski is the Global Focal Point for Land, Property and Reparations with the Department of Operations and Emergencies of the International Organization for Migration (IOM, United Nations). He is based at the IOM Headquarters in Geneva and responsible for providing expert advice, technical assistance, capacity building and operational support to IOM offices, Governments and partners engaged in transitional justice, reparations for victims of human rights violations and land and property restitution.
Since 2001, Igor has been involved in the development and implementation of a number of transitional justice, reparations and land and property restitution initiatives and projects including the German Forced Labour Compensation Programme, the Holocaust Assets Victims Programme, the Roma Holocaust Survivors Assistance Programme, the Sierra Leone Reparations Programme, Nepal Reparations Programme, Iraq Housing Land and Property Restitution, Yemen Land and Property Restitution, Sri Lanka Reparations and others.
Dr. Helder da Costa
General Secretary of the g7+ Secretariat
Dr. Helder da Costa is the General Secretary of the g7+ Secretariat, based in Dili, Timor-Leste. providing services to 20 post-conflict countries around the world.
Dr. Da Costa was the g7+ sherpa during the Busan High Level Forum and represented the g7+ Constituency in the Steering Committee of the Global Partnership for Effective Development Cooperation in 2012-2014. He is one of the champions of the Building Blocks on “Conflict and Fragility” which is essentially “the New Deal for International Engagement in Fragile States”.
Da Costa earned his PhD in Trade Policy at the School of International Applied Economics, the University of Adelaide, South Australia in 2001. He has over 20 years of management experience in the academic and development fields. Dr Da Costa’s professional career includes 6 years of senior posts with both the Asia New Zealand Foundation and Volunteer Service Abroad (VSA) based in Wellington, New Zealand as a Tertiary Education Manager and the Asia Programme Manager overseeing 5 countries in Asia (Bhutan, Lao PDR, Viet Nam, Cambodia and Timor-Leste).
Previously he was appointed as Senior Advisor on Aid Effectiveness for 5 years to the Ministry of Finance, Timor-Leste. He has also consulted for various international development agencies over the past 10 years including UNDP, UN, ADB, World Bank, AusAID and ACIAR Australia. He has contributed to refereed journals on development issues in Southeast Asia and Fragile States.
 The Global Peace Index report can be accessed here. The “Pathways to Peace” report can be accessed here.
 There are several strong indexes and analysis of raising conflict and violent conflict and fragility around the world. Info based on the Global Peace Index is presented here. This does not dismiss data from other sources which will be used as the programme develop a strong research agenda in coordination with Global South think-tanks.
 For example, only Ethiopia, Kenya, and Uganda -which average GDP per capita is about 20 times less than Europe’s- is collectively host about 2.8 million refugees, more than the entire number to arrive in all of Europe’s 28 members states during the entire 2015-16 “refugee crisis”. Key findings from the Global Report on Internal Displacement (GRID 2018) show that new displacement due to conflict and violence reached 11.8 million in 2017, almost double the figure of 6.9 million in 2016. Sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 5.5 million of these displacements, followed by the Middle East and North Africa with 4.5 million. This brings the total number of people living in internal displacement due to conflict close to 40 million worldwide. The full GRID Report can be downloaded here: https://reliefweb.int/report/world/2018-global-report-internal-displacement-grid-2018
 The conclusions of a recent event High-Level global event hosted by the European Union are particularly clear in relation to the important nexus between climate change, peace and security. More information here: https://eeas.europa.eu/headquarters/headquarters-Homepage/47165/climate-peace-and-security-time-action_en
 For more information in regard to the UN Peacebuilding Fund approach to SDGs, refer to section 6 “Sustaining Peace and the relationship with SDGs” (page. 6 and 7): https://undg.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Guidance-on-Sustaining-Peace.170117.final_.pdf. The SG Report on Sustaining Peace resolutions highlight the importance of South-South Cooperation in regard to conflict prevention and sustaining peace.