Women as Benefactors of Development through Social Entrepreneurship

 

Introduction

Gender equality remains to be the greatest human rights challenge of our time, and rightfully policies and discussions about how to empower women constitute an indispensable aspect of sustainable development. In fact, empowering women in the economy and closing gender gaps at work are central to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

However, an effective fight against persistent gender gaps requires not only a conservation on ‘empowering women’ but an equally aggressive conversation on ‘empowered women’ and how those empowered women transform not only their own lives but that of other women, families, communities, children, and men. Such a conversation will allow us to move beyond the typical image of women as the ‘beneficiaries’ of social and economic development. In fact, in the last few decades or so, women have become ‘benefactors’ of sustainable development by taking up on increasingly significant and public roles in business leadership, social entrepreneurship and the third sector, and intellectual life.

This thematic session highlights this growing and indispensable role of women in sustainable development with a focus on social entrepreneurship and the third sector. The session will discuss such issues as:

 

Objectives

  • the emerging and growing role of women in sustaining development and social change especially in the framework of South-South and Triangular cooperation
  • the unique role of women and women’s perspective in social entrepreneurship or third sector (such as, post-heroic leadership paradigm and women paying greater attention to marginalized segments, violence, and discrimination)
  • roadblocks that curtail women’s roles as benefactors and enablers of sustainable development, in particular regarding social entrepreneurship or third sector
  • actionable insights that can facilitate women roles as benefactors of sustainable development both at the national, regional and international level

 

Format and Structure

The solution forum will be conducted in an interactive manner allowing participants to present and share tangible examples and best practices regarding the role female social entrepreneurship (and the third sector) in sustainable development.  The session will last 1.5 hours and will encourage production of concrete outcomes, including but not limited to MoU signing, launching of a report, announcement of a new partnerships, and suggestion of actionable insights.

The Session will be facilitated by a Moderator, who will set the overall context, drive the discussion, engage the panellists and the participants in an interactive dialogue, and synthesize what she hears throughout the forum to maintain the discussion focused and the expected outcomes reached.

The Session will start by Moderator’s introduction of the sessions overall theme and objectives as well as the participants the Moderator will then give the floor to the panellists. After having all presentations or deliberations, Moderator will open the floor for the Q&A and audience comments.

At the end of the solution forum, moderator will summarize the discussions and will provide closing remarks including possible recommendations on how to strengthen the unique role of women and women’s perspective in social entrepreneurship and the third sector in the framework of South-South cooperation among others. The summary report with recommendations will be developed after the forum and will be available for all the participants of the forum and on the Global South-South Development Expo 2017 website.

 

 

Moderator

 

Dr. Neslihan Çevik

Researcher, Statistical, Economic and Social Research and Training Centre for Islamic Countries, subsidiary organ of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation


Neslihan Cevik is a Turkish sociologist of religion. Cevik completed her PhD at Arizona State University (2010). She then joined the Institute for Advanced Studies in Culture at the University of Virginia for her post-doctoral research, where she authored her first book: “Muslimism in Turkey and Beyond: Religion in the Modern World” (November-2015, Palgrave MacMillan). She has coined the term Muslimism as well as New Religious Orthodoxies (with G.M.Thomas) as a new global category of religion. She was invited to various book signings, including the Library of the United States Congress.

Her book has recently been translated into Turkish and will be published in November 2017 by Hece Publication, Ankara, Turkey.

In addition to various peer-reviewed articles, Cevik’s work on religion appears in CNN-Arabic, Daily Sabah, OrientXXI, Informed Comment, and Political Theology Today, and is translated into Arabic, French, and Turkish.

Cevik helped found the first post-colonial studies research center in Istanbul, PAMER, Üsküdar University.

Since 2013, based on her empirical research on Muslimism, Cevik has been assisting private sector to develop a more thorough understanding of Halal markets and young Muslim lifestyle preferences and consumerism. She consulted Turkish market giants, including Sefamerve, Moda Nisa, and De facto. Her consultation focused on branding, product and process innovation, and risk management.

Cevik also is the founder of M-Line Fashion, a modest wear and lifestyle e-commerce start-up company, which was selected as the 5th most famous Islamic fashion design brand in the world by brandedgirls.com. As an engaged social entrepreneur, Cevik sought to facilitate a greater role for Muslim women in social sustainable development and the private sector.

Currently, Cevik is a senior researcher at SESRIC, Organization of the Islamic Cooperation, where she is responsible for leading social research. She focuses particular on youth, women and gender, and social sustainability. She is also teaching Master level classes on private sector & sustainable development in Peace and Conflict Studies, Ankara Social Sciences University, Turkey.

Cevik strongly believes that addressing complex contemporary problems requires an inter-sectoral and interdisciplinary approach.

 

Panelists

 

Dr. A.H. Monjurul Kabir

Senior Adviser and Global Lead, South-South and Triangular Cooperation, UN Women


Dr. A.H. Monjurul KABIR, is currently Senior Programme Adviser and Chief of Section, Asia-Pacific, LDCs, and SIDS at UN Women HQ in New York. He is UN Women’s global lead/Coordinator for South-South and Triangular Cooperation. Dr. Kabir, a senior Governance, and Public Sector Management expert, was the Practice Team Leader and Policy Adviser (2010-14) for Governance and Rule of Law for UNDP Europe and Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Dr. Kabir served as the Global Policy Specialist (2006-10) with Bureau for Development Policy at UNDP HQ to support global Democratic Governance practice and promote knowledge leadership and innovation in governance.

Previously, Dr. Kabir served as UN’s Legislative Adviser (2005-06) to the Afghan National Assembly and led international cooperation for the establishment of the Afghan National Assembly. He led the Democratic Governance Portfolio for UNDP Bangladesh and successfully integrated human rights and human security in democratic governance.

In these capacities in Europe and Asia, Dr. Kabir pursued gender equality, economic, and political empowerment of women through parliament, public administration, justice institutions, security sector reforms, and economic empowerment initiatives. Prior to joining UN, Dr. Kabir worked extensively with both media [new and old media], national human rights institutions, electoral affairs, and, civil society organisations based in Asia and the Pacific region.

Dr. Kabir’s technical expertise includes, among others, Democracy and Governance, Development Effectiveness through programming and cooperation, and Policy Advocacy with specialization in Legislative Strengthening, Rule of Law, Human Rights, Gender Equality, Economic Empowerment and Social Inclusion. Dr. Kabir authored numerous research articles, blogs, and OP-ED pieces in international journals, newspapers and portals on a range of issues.

Monjurul Kabir, a law graduate and an international human rights lawyer, holds a Ph.D in Politics with the University of Hull, United Kingdom. Dr. Kabir holds a Masters in International Human Rights Law (with distinction) with the University of Essex, UK. He can be contacted at monjurul.kabir@outlook.com, monjurul.kabir@unwomen.org, and followed at https://twitter.com/mkabir2011

 

Ms. Bedriye Hülya

Founder of B-fit, B-fit Sport and Health Living Centers for Women


Bedriye Hulya is the founder of B-fit, B-fit Sport and Health Living Centers for Women.

Bedriye studied international relations at the University of Istanbul and later went on to pursue degrees in psychology in the United States. She earned a B.A. in psychology at Columbia University and an M.A. in psychology. Bedriye started her career having founded and managed several enterprises in the tourism and textile sectors. During her career, Bedriye has successfully identified needs and opportunities and put together teams and resources. She crossed to the social side at 42, deciding to be the solution to her challenges as a woman entrepreneur. Women’s involvement and enjoyment of their bodies through sports and exercise had always been close to her heart: since a car accident that significantly limited her physical abilities in her teenage years, Bedriye is a firm believer that self-awareness and empowerment start with the body.

B-fit is a national chain of women-only gyms, utilizing a franchising model that empowers Turkish women. One of the basic principles of b-fit is that exercise is not a luxury but a human right; however it is not the only component. b-fit creates spaces open to women only where they can develop self-awareness and a wide range of skills.

Since 2006, Bedriye Hulya has grown the business to over 200 gyms in over 46 cities around Turkey all run by women, enabling more than 500,000 women across a variety of socio-economic backgrounds to do sports and hundreds to start working – many of them for the first time in their lives.

Some of the key milestones are; in 2009, Bedriye Hulya has been rewarded as an Endeavor social entrepreneur, in 2012 Bedriye Hulya has become an Ashoka Fellow. Schwab Foundation has rewarded as Social Entrepreneur of the Year 2013. A year later, Garanti Bank chose as Social Entrepreneur of the Year. In 2015 b-fit’s sister company Muzipo Kids was founded. Muzipo Kids is the first kids educational activity center in Turkey.They are now 30 Muzipo Kids centers in Turkey. In 2016, Bedriye Hulya founded Bizbizze Small Business Bureau for Women , where women are educated and coached in Enterprenuership, Employment and Volunteering areas.

Bedriye Hulya currently is studying PhD in clinic psychology.

 

Prof. Bertil Emrah Oder

Dean and Professor of Constitutional Law at Koç University Law School


Bertil Emrah Oder is the Dean and Professor of Constitutional Law at Koç University Law School, received her PhD in both public and private law from University of Cologne (Germany). She holds UNESCO Chair for Gender Equality and Sustainable Development. Dr. Oder’s research focuses on comparative constitutional law, gender studies, European Union law and international human rights law. She is also president of Law Schools Global League. She has been selected as Henry Morris Lecturer of International and Comparative Law in 2012 by Chicago Kent College of Law. She is a full member of Science Academy. She has served as international consultant of UN Women and Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) and published four books, dozens of articles, editorials and book chapters on various subjects in public law with focus on constitutionalism, human rights and judicial review. Fluent in English, German and Turkish, Dr. Oder holds also LLB and MA/LLM degrees from the University of Istanbul and Marmara University (Turkey).

 

Ms. Oulimata Fall

Advisor, Mo Ibrahim Leadership Fellow, Office of the Executive Director, International Trade Centre


Passionate about trade and development, Ms. Oulimata FALL, citizen of Senegal, is a current Mo Ibrahim Leadership Fellow at the International Trade Centre (ITC) in the Office of the Executive Director.

Based in Geneva, ITC is the joint development agency of the United Nations and the World Trade Organization (WTO), which focuses on the international competitiveness of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) from developing countries. More than 80% of ITC’s interventions are in Sub-Saharan Africa, Least Developed countries (LDCs), Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDCs), Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and post-conflict and fragile economies. Since 1964, ITC has been developing innovative tools and solutions, which help MSMEs connect to international markets using trade as a platform for inclusive growth, and job creation especially for women, young people, and poor communities.

Oulimata comes from the Senegalese Export Promotion Agency, where she headed the Trade Promotion and Economic Intelligence Division. Over the past 10 years, she has promoted “Made in Senegal” products in foreign markets and successfully implemented aid for trade projects, which strengthened Senegalese SMEs international competitiveness and connection to global value chains.

She holds a MBA in Marketing and Strategies from the African Centre for Higher Studies in Management (CESAG) and a Master in Arts, Literature, Languages, and Communication (major in International Trade) from Charles De Gaulle Lille III University.

 

Ms. Attiya Nawazish Ali

Assistant Secretary General, Islamic Chamber of Commerce, Industry & Agriculture (ICCIA)


Mrs. Attiya Nawazish Ali has been working in the Islamic Chamber of Commerce, Industry and Agriculture (ICCIA) {an affiliated Institution of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)} since its establishment in 1980 in the General Secretariat Headquarters, in Karachi – Pakistan.

She has been working with the private sector of 57 OIC Member Countries, on projects that facilitate economic cooperation through trade and investment. Taking into consideration the socio-economic environment of the OIC Countries, she focuses on capacity building, poverty alleviation, marketing and managing skills, value-addition, value-chain, agribusiness, gender development, economic empowerment, Small & Medium Enterprises, microfinance, developing Entrepreneurship through E-commerce, particularly in women & youth, transferring of knowledge & expertise. These programmes are held by organizing workshops, seminars and training programmes. Additionally, she worked on the grass-root levels in Pakistan to upgrade the skills of start-ups, so as to enable them to compete in the international market. She is currently working on establishing incubators for women-led enterprises.

She has also worked with the General Secretariat of the OIC and other related institutions on the OIC Plan of Action for the Advancement of Women (OPAAW), which calls, to improve and sustain women’s right in the Muslim World, addressing the Member States to strengthen laws to empower the women specially in the economic, social and cultural sectors.

As a representative of the Private Sector organization, she is also working on creating awareness on the importance of green technology to be a part of a business.

In addition, she has also been undertaking programmes and activities, aimed at implementing the various sectors of the OIC-2025: Programme of Action, particularly in promoting the level of Intra Islamic Trade and to strengthen the Public Private Partnership. She propagates the concept of involving the youth, by developing relevant curriculum in the educational institutions which could prepare and guide them to build their future and thereby contribute to self-reliance. In addition, she also believes that women are achievers and history is replete with such success stories. Therefore, special focus is also given to developing programmes, which would give more impetus to the efforts taken by women.

She represents Islamic Chamber at numerous international events and brings with her a rich experience of the private sector of the OIC Countries. She works closely with some of the UN Agencies, such as UNDP, UNOSSC, PGTF and other International Organizations and Associations working in similar fields, aiming at South-South Cooperation for achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

 

Dr. Srinivas Tata

Chief of Capacity Development and Partnerships Section in the Strategy and Programme Management Division of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission of Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok


Dr. Srinivas Tata has had experience within and outside the United Nations in a range of areas including programme management, social development, and public policy. He is currently serving as the Chief of Capacity Development and Partnerships Section in the Strategy and Programme Management Division of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission of Asia and the Pacific in Bangkok. His portfolio includes resource mobilization, partnerships, south-south cooperation, management of ESCAP’s overall capacity development portfolio and results-based management.

He has previous served in the social development division of ESCAP as the Chief of Social Policy and Population in ESCAP, with responsibility for overall formulation of social policy and the impact of population dynamics. The focus areas covered by the section include population ageing, population policies, migration, health and development linkages including access to reproductive and sexual health and HIV services.

Prior to this assignment, Dr. Srinivas Tata served in the UN headquarters in New York as the Deputy Chief of the Regional Commissions New York Office. As a national policy maker. he has extensive experience in finance, public health and social policy including financing of health programmes, impact of trade agreements on health, non-communicable diseases as well as health security. He also has experience in the area of fixing tariffs and taxes on pharmaceuticals and medicines. He is a physician by qualification with experience in finance and public health.

 

 

Focal Point Contact Details

Overall Coordinator: The Statistical, Economic and Social Research and Training Centre for Islamic Countries (SESRIC), subsidiary organ of the OIC
Communications Focal Point: Mr. Onur Çağlar
Title: Technical Cooperation Specialist
Email: ocaglar@sesric.org
Phone: +90 535 416-1211

 

Why does Social Entrepreneurship Matter for Sustainable Development?

In debates on women and sustainable development, women are typically viewed as beneficiaries of sustainable development initiatives and policies. This ‘beneficiaries-mainly’ image of women is not groundless: vulnerability is not distributed equally, and women —given persistent and global gender disparity across all areas of life— are one of the most vulnerable groups.

While grounded in reality, nevertheless, this image is also tricky: once vulnerability becomes a defining characteristic of a given group, it can justify injury and exclusion of that group, and can create a vicious trap. In the case of women, such a justification in turn reinforces those already deeply entrenched gender norms that always contemplate men as benefactors of development: as scientists and innovators, political and business leaders, community builder, and civil activists and makers of social change.

This picturing of women as beneficiaries-mainly results in a quite tangible problem regarding how we understand women’s role in sustainable development as well. This tangible problem namely is the failure to recognize when women do indeed become benefactors of development and the discernible contribution this role brings about. This failure is not only discursive; it misinforms policies, hampering necessary efforts that can advance women’s role as benefactors. For instance, seeing women as beneficiaries has led to the concept of ‘smart economics’ referring to the instrumental value of empowering women; yet, this concept has missed on the fact that economic development does not automatically translate into greater gender equality [1]. Rather, gender equality and the ‘smart benefits’ that can be gained from it require greater female autonomy; in other words, it requires recognizing and promoting women’s potential for becoming benefactors.

Despite the common picturing of women as the recipients of development, since the 1980s, both in developed and developing world, women have been taking up on prominent public roles in sports, intellectual life, politics, civil activism, and the private sector, working on diverse development issues from poverty to exclusion of marginalized segments to human’s rights.

Women’s contribution to sustainable development has been comprehensive. This session, however, focuses on social entrepreneurship as a channel of sustainable development. This focus follows the most contemporary debates in development work and practice and the future trajectory development work is seemingly taking. That future increasingly signals the rise of non-traditional actors, who apply creative methods to solve thorniest development problems:  social entrepreneurs.

Traditional stakeholders of development (nation-states, INGOs, IGOs, NGOs, Multinational Corporations) have taken fundamental steps to address sustainable development. Nevertheless, social problems in contemporary society have become densely interconnected, highly complex, and too big for any centralized mechanism. Contemporary society, in contrast, is generating the need for new actors (people and organizational structures) to appear that can directly address social and environmental problems often overlooked by traditional actors of development and that cannot be tackled through traditional solutions.

Social entrepreneurship has emerged in this context and has been increasingly getting attention from various stakeholders of development, from academics to practisers, as a means of tackling some of society’s most entrenched social problems [2]. Social entrepreneurship applies business methods and strategies to address social problems and a social enterprise can be defined as “organizations that are primarily in the business of creating significant societal value and do so in an entrepreneurial market-oriented way, that is though generating own revenues to sustain themselves” [3].

Social entrepreneurship has a unique ability and position for problem-solving most notably because:

  • Social entrepreneurs challenge traditional solutions approach by looking at the old problems with new and creative approaches [4]
  • This innovative aspect gives them a greater edge to formulate faster, more effective, and cheaper solutions
  • They are generally people who have experienced and been hit by the problem itself or are experts at it. This enables them to come up with a bottom-up approach
  • They can overcome the free-rider problem, which tend to hamper traditional stakeholders and methods
  • Finally, their survival depends on their success in solving the problem, which generates greater accountability

Additionally, social entrepreneurs are marked by, “ethical motives, a particular ability for leadership, and by a passion for realizing a social mission and objectives as well as a certain ability to recognize social problems and related creative solutions” [5].

In developing countries and within the framework of south-south cooperation, social entrepreneurship is still at its infancy. Given its unique qualities, nevertheless, social entrepreneurship would be particularly meaningful for and can play a fundamental role in improving social conditions in developing countries, where scarcity of resources (finance or human capital), long-term political and economic instability, and weak public management have left serious social problems unattended. As such, greater investment to promote social entrepreneurship as a channel of sustainable development will be necessary for the pursuance of development objectives in the framework of the South-South Cooperation.

 

Becoming Benefactors of Development: Women and Social Entrepreneurship

Social entrepreneurship is a sector with a unique profile in terms of gender and work. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) Survey and the LSE-SELUSI (SELUSI) reports suggest that, consistently across the globe, women are almost as likely as men to be involved in social entrepreneurial activity, showing that the gender gap in social entrepreneurship is considerably smaller than the gender gap in mainstream entrepreneurship and the private sector more broadly [6].

In fact, social entrepreneurship has opened up a new space for women to mobilize for sustainable development, social change, innovation, leadership, and social problem solving. It is therefore a practical area through which we can observe women’s role as benefactors; that is, we can observe what unique skills, traits, and insights women put on the table, and what kind of discernible benefits we get out of this.

Researches have asked why there is less gender gap in social entrepreneurship and mostly tapped into social psychology to retrieve an answer. A recurring theme such studies point is that women entrepreneurs tend to be have a greater sensitivity towards the needs of their environment, which then makes them a relevant role in the framework of social entrepreneurship [7]. Yet, arguments that quickly mark a causal link between socially constructed categories of femininity (e.g., motherhood, being caring) and social entrepreneurship (community-orientation) should be met with caution. When links exist between femininity and entrepreneurship, we should also be aware that those links are shaped within particular contexts marked by broad gender norms rather than stemming from something inherent to women.

Fortunately, there exists a growing body of evidence and research that point to more complex relationships between women and social entrepreneurship and that debunk simplistic gender norms. Most notably, for example, research shows that women-led ventures have greater tendency to being first ones to provide a kind of service or product in their region, country or worldwide [8] and women-led ventures seem to be more likely to open up new markets. These findings are important insights. They ‘debunk the idea that innovation is more of a ‘masculine’ affaire’ [9] and on the contrary point to women’s greater capacity in traits we typically associate with masculinity. Women in fact take the role of lead-innovators and produce spill over benefits and remarkable return on investments.

Equally importantly, women have a greater democratizing affect; they spread the benefits of development across a broader range of recipients.  Both in social entrepreneurship and the third sector more broadly women are more likely to be receptive of marginalized groups and their needs. Women also tend to employ more females; make partnerships with other women; and put some topics such as children, family, women’s health, violence and discrimination towards certain groups of population on the social agenda [10].

Finally, social entrepreneurship is not solely about creating new ventures but also includes leadership. Importantly, while gender stereotypes associate leadership with men (the white male hero), recent research within the context of knowledge-based economies have shown that differing from industry-based economy, the current economic era requires new types of leadership skills, termed ‘post-heroic leadership’. While traditional leadership is associated with such traits as individualism, control, assertiveness, and skills of advocacy and domination, the new paradigm emphasizes empathy, community, vulnerability, and skills of inquiry and collaboration [11]. These news traits work nicely with the social entrepreneurship which targets public good production rather than individual wealth and especially with women-led ventures, which are more likely to make decisions by consensus and pay more attention to questions linked to quality [12].

What we have discussed so far, and straightforwardly, gives us an idea on how women have been contributing to development and what unique benefits we can gain from due recognition of such contributions. It should also be noted that the discourse of development itself is shifting from a one-way relationship between a powerful donor and a vulnerable recipient to a two-way conversation marked by collaboration, solidarity, and integration, as epitomized by the South-South philosophy. Women entrepreneurship can precisely provide the link that can tie in national to the global and community benefits to individual benefits, as such carving out a niche area that can sustain development in a dynamic way. In sum, the session highlights, first, women’s key role and capacity in leading societal change and producing public good, and, second it highlights social entrepreneurship as a dynamic channel to empower women and advance development objectives.

 

The way forward: How to help female entrepreneurs to help other women

The link between female social entrepreneurship and social change has so far been widely underappreciated. While bringing this underappreciated role to public attention, the session also aims to bring about actionable insights that can identify challenges women face in becoming benefactors of development as well as possible solutions to those challenges. The broader question which can underpin and inform this effort is: how do we help women leaders to help and contribute to their communities and to the world?

Some questions the session will raise, therefore, include but will not be limited to: policies that can facilitate the growth of social entrepreneurship and women’s role and mobilization in it, the kind of research  needed to facilitate women’s role as benefactors and  also to understand and fight gender norms regarding women role as leaders or innovators, the impact of  family and work balance on female social entrepreneurship, and  enabling policymakers as well as the public to recognize women’s contrıbutions to sustainable development through social entrepreneurship.

These conceptual questions and discussions should also be accompanied by specific suggestions on how the south-south and triangular cooperation can contribute to and benefit from female social entrepreneurship, including identifying modalities, programs, and concrete actions.

 

 

 

[1] Bradshaw, S., Castellino, J., & Diop, B. (2013). Women’s role in economic development: Overcoming the constraints. Sustainable Development Solutions Network.

[2] Teasdale, S., McKay, S., Phillimore, J., & Teasdale, N. (2011). Exploring gender and social entrepreneurship: women’s leadership, employment and participation in the third sector and social enterprises. Voluntary Sector Review, 2(1), 57-76.

[3] Huysentruyt, M. (2014). Women’s Social Entrepreneurship and Innovation. OECD Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED) Working Papers, (1), 0_1.pg 4.

[4] Ahl, H., Berglund, K., Pettersson, K., & Tillmar, M. (2016). From feminism to FemInc. ism: On the uneasy relationship between feminism, entrepreneurship and the Nordic welfare state. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 12(2), 369-392.

[5] Benavides-Espinosa, M. M., & Mohedano-Suanes, A. (2012). Linking women entrepreneurship with social entrepreneurship. In Women’s Entrepreneurship and Economics (pp. 53-71). Springer New York. Pg. 54

[6] Huysentruyt, M. (2014). Women’s Social Entrepreneurship and Innovation. OECD Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED) Working Papers, (1), 0_1.

[7] Ibid.

[8] Ibid.

[9] pg.15. Ibid

[10] Humbert, A. L. (2012). Women as social entrepreneurs.

[11] Fletcher, J. K. (2004). The paradox of postheroic leadership: An essay on gender, power, and transformational change. The leadership quarterly, 15(5), 647-661.

[12] Humbert, A. L. (2012). Women as social entrepreneurs.